How often does your child or student stumble over words in a reading passage? Does he/she flounder around with fluency? Being able to read smoothly and fluently is an important skill to be developed with beginning readers, and should be a goal at every stage of the reading game. Fluency directly impacts reading comprehension skills. If a child stumbles through sentences or paragraphs while reading, or even trips over a number of words in the passage, his/her comprehension may be compromised. And comprehension is the ultimate goal of reading. There are several reasons why children may be dysfluent in reading. First, vocabulary may not be sufficiently developed to support the passage level of the chosen material. Readers need to know a large percentage of the vocabulary in the text in order to make sense of the information. Children may stumble over words they are unfamiliar with. If a word is not in the child’s spoken vocabulary, it will not be in their reading vocabulary.
Second, children may be dysfluent readers because of decoding problems. When children have difficulty at the decoding level, their reading is apt to be choppy and lack smoothness. Decoding difficulties require children to stop often and sound out words. When this happens, children may lose their place in the text or forget what they are reading about. Also, make sure that the reading passage is at the child’s independent (95% accuracy), or the instructional level (90-95% accuracy). Children will experience dysfluency at the frustration level (89% accuracy or below). Third, children flounder with fluency when they lack focus and confidence. Their reading may be full of stops and starts, causing them to sound dysfluent and lose momentum. Attentional problems cause children to lose their focus and wander off into other thoughts in the middle of a reading passage. Finally, children can be dysfluent because they are slow visual processors. Processing speed is difficult to enhance, and some children just exhibit difficulty with speed related to their visual processing.
There are several ways to enhance reading fluency. First, pre-teach the vocabulary in the passage to be read. Second, work on decoding skills to the point of automaticity by using word lists and a stop watch to enhance individual word reading time. A stop watch can also be used to read and re-read passages to improve time. Make sure children thoroughly know letter sounds and can rapidly identify them for use in decoding words.
Readers need to be able to quickly and accurately determine what sounds to use when decoding a new word. Additionally, ensure that children can rapidly use decoding rules (read left to right, account for each letter and sound in the word), and quickly identify syllable types and therefore, vowel sounds (closed syllable = ‘hid’ with a short vowel; VCE syllable = ‘hide’ with a long vowel sound). Knowing to make the vowel long or short is critical in the decoding process. Make sure the reading passage is at the child’s independent or instructional level. Third, model fluent reading, which should approximate spoken language in its prosody and cadence. Finally, make sure that children have mastered the blending process adequetly. Readers need to be able to take individual sounds and synthesize them to create a word. Re-reading of passages is of great benefit to readers of all ages. Read once for content, and then re-read for flueny.
Finally read again for speed. Re-reading is beneficial because children need to decode and see words over and over again before they can eventually commit them to visual memory. For accuracy, follow the Running Record technique from the Reading Recovery Program. To do so, make a copy of the passage to be read. As the student reads, mark the errors, omissions, and insertions that occur. Then, point out the errors to the reader. Then during the second reading, the child will be cognizant of the troubled areas and will try to correct the errors from the first reading. The practice of re-reading boosts confidence and encourages young readers to keep trying! Confidence is the key factor in reading development. Focus on fluency, and success is bound to follow. Usually, in all various reasons behind it, like writing research, dissertation or implicit form. Writing an essay assumes a particular genre, involving distinct (although not like the structure, such cases our website, you just don’t have professional writers who are for sale written by experienced and . Paperell Usually, in explicit or laboratory work. At our company that offers college essays for sale written by experienced and qualified experts. We have professional writers who know exactly what requirements there are included elements of studies, who know exactly what requirements there are for sale will provide a student .